Dynamics Changes of Total Bacteria in the Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) of Koi Fish (Cyprinus rubrofuscus)


  • I Made Dedi Mahariawan Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Jalan Veteran, Ketawanggede, Lowokwaru, Malang, Jawa Timur, 65145, Indonesia
  • Sri Andayani Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Jalan Veteran, Ketawanggede, Lowokwaru, Malang, Jawa Timur, 65145, Indonesia
  • Heny Suprastyani Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Jalan Veteran, Ketawanggede, Lowokwaru, Malang, Jawa Timur, 65145, Indonesia
  • Feni Tri Sa’adati Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Jalan Veteran, Ketawanggede, Lowokwaru, Malang, Jawa Timur, 65145, Indonesia




bacterial density, ornamental fish, recirculation


Abstract views: 50 , PDF downloads: 53


Koi fish (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) is one of the aquaculture commodities that is highly marketable because of its unique color pattern and body shape. The prevalence of parasites and pathogenic agents in Koi fish among farmers poses challenges and leads to the occurrence of numerous illnesses. Water quality management is implemented in an effort to prevent several infectious microorganisms. The application of a recirculation system is used to enhance water quality and bolster the disease resistance of Koi fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of RAS technology in the koi fish culture under different filter media on bacterial density. This study used four treatments, namely treatment A (RAS with a dacron filter and pumice), B (RAS with a dacron filter and sand), C (RAS with a sand and pumice filter), and K (control without a recirculation system). The parameter observed in this study was the density of bacteria in the koi fish rearing-media. These findings demonstrated that the utilization of various filters had an impact on bacterial density. Treatment C (RAS with sand and pumice filter) exhibited the greatest bacterial density with an average value exceeding 3.4 log CFU. mL-1 from the first week to the third week. The density of nitrifying bacteria in the koi fish production system is positively influenced by the high-quality maintenance practices that are maintained under optimal conditions.


Download data is not yet available.


Abe, H. A., Dias, J. A. R., Sousa, N. D. C., Couto, M. V. S. D., Reis, R. G. A., Paixão, P. E. G., & Fujimoto, R. Y. (2019). Growth of Amazon ornamental fish Nannostomus beckfordi larvae (Steindachner, 1876) submitted to different stocking densities and feeding management in captivity conditions. Aquaculture Research, 50(8), 2276-2280.

Ahmed, N., & Turchini, G. M. (2021). Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS): Environmental solution and climate change adaptation. Journal of Cleaner production, 297, 126604.

Almeida, D. B, Semedo, M., Magalhaes, C., Blanquet, I., & Mucha, A. P. (2022). The network of nitrifying and pathogenic prokaryotic interactions in a recirculating aquaculture system of a sole (Solea senegalensis) hatchery. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, 1038196.

Amin, A. A. A., Dewi, N. N., & Rahardja, B. S. (2023, December). Improvement of Red Color quality in Koi Fish (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of rosella extract in feed (Hibiscus sabdariffa). In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 1273, No. 1, p. 012040). IOP Publishing.

Andayani, S., Suprastyani, H., Sa'adati, F. T. and Agustina, C. D. (2022). Analisis kesehatan ikan berdasarkan kualitas air pada budidaya Ikan Koi (Cyprinus Sp.) sistem resirkulasi. JFMR (Journal of Fisheries and Marine Research), 6(3), 20-26.

Auffret, M., Yergeau, É., Pilote, A., Proulx, É., Proulx, D., Greer, C. W., Vanderberg, G. & Villemur, R. (2013). Impact of water quality on the bacterial populations and off-flavours in recirculating aquaculture systems. FEMS microbiology ecology, 84(2), 235-247.

Boaventura, T. P., Miranda-Filho, K. C., Oréfice, R. L., & Luz, R. K. (2018). Influence of porosity of low-density polyethylene media on the maturation process of biofilters used in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture International, 26, 1035-1049.

Dalsgaard, J., Lund, I., Thorarinsdottir, R., Drengstig, A., Arvonen, K., & Pedersen, P. B. (2013). Farming different species in RAS in Nordic countries: Current status and future perspectives. Aquacultural engineering, 53, 2-13.

Dauda, A. B., Ajadi, A., Tola-Fabunmi, A. S., & Akinwole, A. O. (2019). Waste production in aquaculture: Sources, components and managements in different culture systems. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 4(3), 81-88.

de Oliveira, F. F., Moreira, R. G., & Schneider, R. P. (2019). Evidence of improved water quality and biofilm control by slow sand filters in aquaculture–a case study. Aquacultural Engineering, 85, 80-89.

Ebeling, J. M. (2000). Engineering aspects of recirculating aquaculture systems. Marine Technology Society Journal, 34(1), 68-78.

El-Deen, A. G. S., & Elkamel, A. A. (2015). Clinical and experimental study on vibriosis in ornamental fish. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 61(146), 147-153.

Elisafitri, M., Satyantini, W. H., Arief, M., & Sulmartiwi, L. (2021, March). Parasitic disease in Koi fish (Cyprinus carpio) in freshwater ponds with different densities in Sukabumi, West Java. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 718, No. 1, p. 012050). IOP Publishing.

Espinal, C. A., & Matulić, D. (2019). Recirculating aquaculture technologies. Aquaponics food production systems, 1, 35-76.

Hailu, M., & Mitiku, M. A. (2021). The Effect of fish parasites in freshwater culture and capture fisheries and their treatment mechnaisms. International Journal of Zoology and Animal Biology, 4(2), 1-10.

Hastuti, Y. P., Prastomo, A. T., Affandi, R., Nurussalam, W., Wildan, D. M., & Agus, S. B. (2020). Evaluation of the use of malang sand as a filter material on water quality, physiological responses and production performance of mud crab Scylla serrata. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis, 12(3), 833-848.

Huguenin, J. E.; Colt, J., 2002. Design and operating guide for aquaculture seawater systems. 2nd edition. Development in aquaculture and fisheries science – 33. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elservier Science B. V.

Hüpeden, J., Wemheuer, B., Indenbirken, D., Schulz, C., & Spieck, E. (2020). Taxonomic and functional profiling of nitrifying biofilms in freshwater, brackish and marine RAS biofilters. Aquacultural Engineering, 90, 102094.

Kelabora, DM & Sabariah. 2010. Level of growth and survival of freshwater Bawal Fish larvae Collosoma sp. with different water discharge rate in the recirculation system. Indonesian Aquaculture Journal 9 (1): 56-60.

Lindholm‐Lehto, P. (2023). Water quality monitoring in recirculating aquaculture systems. Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries, 3(2), 113-131.

Lindholm-Lehto, P. C., Pulkkinen, J. T., Kiuru, T., Koskela, J., & Vielma, J. (2021). Efficient water treatment achieved in recirculating aquaculture system using woodchip denitrification and slow sand filtration. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 65333-65348.

Lukmantoro, T. A., & Rahardja, B. S. (2020, February). Effect of different filter media use on aquaponics system on ammonium (NH4+), nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations of catfish (Clarias sp.) aquaculture. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 441, No. 1, p. 012121). IOP Publishing.

Maulana, M. R., Junaidi, M., & Setyono, B. D. H. (2021). Combination of Pumpkin Flour (Cucurbita moschata D.) and Carrot Flour (Daucus carota L.) on The Brightness Color of Koi Fish (Cyprinus carpio). Jurnal Biologi Tropis, 21(1), 81-88.

Michaud, L., Lo Giudice, A., Troussellier, M., Smedile, F., Bruni, V., Blancheton, J.P., 2009. Phylogenetic characterization of the heterotrophic bacterial communities inhabiting a marine recirculating aquaculture system. Appl. Microbiol. 107, 1935–1946

Mulyati, S., Herdianto, T., Suhermanto, A., & Sofian, A. (2022). The prospects of business development in ornamental fish in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 23(12).

Neissi, A., Rafiee, G., Rahimi, S., Farahmand, H., Pandit, S., & Mijakovic, I. (2022). Enriched microbial communities for ammonium and nitrite removal from recirculating aquaculture systems. Chemosphere, 295, 133811.

Oktavia, A. N., Hastuti, S., & Harwanto, D. (2021). The role of filter with different media compositions on water quality and survival of Pangasius (Pangasius sp.) in recirculation aquaculture system. Omni-Akuatika, 17(1), 8-18.

Prasetya, N., Subekti, S. & Kismiyati. (2013). Prevalensi ektoparasit yang menyerang benih ikan koi (Cyprinus carpio) di bursa ikan hias Surabaya. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan, 5(1), 113-116.

Prest, E. I., Hammes, F., Van Loosdrecht, M. C., & Vrouwenvelder, J. S. (2016). Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods, and challenges. Frontiers in microbiology, 7, 45.

Pungrasmi, W., Phinitthanaphak, P., & Powtongsook, S. (2016). Nitrogen removal from a recirculating aquaculture system using a pumice bottom substrate nitrification-denitrification tank. Ecological engineering, 95, 357-363.

Qur'ania A., Verananda D. I., 2017 Tsukamoto fuzzy implementation to identify the pond water quality of koi. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 166: 1-7.

Rodríguez-Leal, S., Silva-Acosta, J., Marzialetti, T., & Gallardo-Rodríguez, J. J. (2023). Lab-and pilot-scale photo-biofilter performance with algal–bacterial beads in a recirculation aquaculture system for rearing rainbow trout. Journal of Applied Phycology, 1-11.

Rojas-Tirado, P., Pedersen, P. B., Vadstein, O., & Pedersen, L. F. (2018). Changes in microbial water quality in RAS following altered feed loading. Aquacultural engineering, 81, 80-88.

Rud, I., Kolarevic, J., Holan, A. B., Berget, I., Calabrese, S., & Terjesen, B. F. (2017). Deep-sequencing of the bacterial microbiota in commercial-scale recirculating and semi-closed aquaculture systems for Atlantic salmon post-smolt production. Aquacultural Engineering, 78, 50-62.

Said, M. M., El-Barbary, Y. A., & Ahmed, O. M. (2022). Assessment of performance, microbial community, bacterial food quality, and gene expression of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared under different density biofloc systems. Aquaculture Nutrition, 2022.

Schreier HJ, Mirzoyan N, Saito K (2010) Microbial diversity of biological filters in recirculating aquaculture systems. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:318–325

Seginer, I., & Mozes, N. (2012). A note on oxygen supply in RAS: The effect of water temperature. Aquacultural Engineering, 50, 46-54.

Sinansari, S., & Priono, B. (2019, February). Opportunity and business challenge of marine ornamental fishes in Indonesia as a potential commodity of fisheries. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 230, No. 1, p. 012067). IOP Publishing.

Srithep, P., Khinthong, B., Chodanon, T., Powtongsook, S., Pungrasmi, W., & Limpiyakorn, T. (2015). Communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing archaea and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in shrimp ponds. Annals of microbiology, 65, 267-278.

Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). (2006). Cara uji mikrobiologi-Bagian 3: Penentuan Angka Lempeng Total (ALT) pada produk perikanan. SNI 01-2332.3-2006.

Sugita, H., Nakamura, H., & Shimada, T. (2005). Microbial communities associated with filter materials in recirculating aquaculture systems of freshwater fish. Aquaculture, 243(1-4), 403-409.

Tanjung, R. R. M., Zidni, I., Iskandar, I., & Junianto, J. (2019). Effect of difference filter media on Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) production performance. World Scientific News, (118), 194-208.

Taufik, M., Ismail, T. I. T., Manan, H., Ikhwanuddin, M., Salam, A. I. A., Rahim, A. I. A., Ishak, A. N., Kamaruzzan, A. S., Draman, A. S. & Kasan, N. A. (2023). Synergistic effects of Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) with combination of clear water, probiotic and biofloc technology: A review. Aquaculture and Fisheries.

Wijayanto, D., Bambang, A. N., Nugroho, R. A., Kurohman, F., & Nursanto, D. B. (2022). The effect of feeding rate on growth and BC ratio of Asian seabass reared in artificial low salinity water. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 15(1), 188-194.

Wijimulyati, S., Andrianto Aritonang, E., & Rista Efrem Burga, E. (2020). Characteristics and figures of fresh tilapia bacteria from Tambak Sawiyoh Sidoarjo. The Indonesian Journal of Public Health, 15(1), 103-112.

Yang, J., Jia, L., Guo, Z., Shen, Y., Li, X., Mou, Z., Yu, K., & Lin, J. C. W. (2023). Prediction and control of water quality in Recirculating Aquaculture System based on hybrid neural network. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 121, 106002.




How to Cite

Mahariawan, I. M. D., Andayani, S., Suprastyani, H., & Sa’adati, F. T. (2024). Dynamics Changes of Total Bacteria in the Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) of Koi Fish (Cyprinus rubrofuscus). Jurnal Sumberdaya Akuatik Indopasifik, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.46252/jsai-fpik-unipa.2024.Vol.8.No.1.406



Abstract views: 50 , PDF downloads: 53

Most read articles by the same author(s)